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    in a matter of [Management,of,Solid,Waste,in,a,Market:,Case,Study,of,Bodija,Market,,Ibadan,,Nigeria]

    来源:六七范文网 时间:2019-04-24 04:53:10 点击:

      Abstract: Solid waste management in developing countries has assumed the scale of a major social and environmental challenge. However, many developing countries such as Nigeria have a chronic solid waste management problem. Poorly managed solid waste in market has resulted in health hazards and environmental disaster due to contamination by vermin. This paper studies the management of solid waste in Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative approach, employing waste composition analysis of samples from the case study area, and questionnaire survey as key methods for data generation. Analysis of result reveals poor collection practise in the market with 6.7% respondents practicing open burning of refuse. However, high rate of waste generation in the market, inconsistency and inefficiency of the private collection agents and lack of funds on the part of the waste management authority has led to this practise. In the next two decades, a total volume of 282,000 m3 of landfill site would be needed for solid waste disposal in the market. The sanitary landfill technique has the potential to reduce environmental health problems created by the existing disposal methods. Hence, cost recovery practises and reconstruction of management capacity are recommended as solutions to the problem.
      Key words: Solid waste management, market, landfill, Ibadan, sustainability.
       1. Introduction
      In Nigeria, solid waste has become an important issue with piles of wastes often found in roads, rivers and many other open spaces in the cities resulting in significant health and environmental problems.
      The state of solid waste management in cities of most developing countries is a major social and environmental challenge [1, 2].
      In SSA (sub-Saharan Africa), the situation has been worsened by the combined influence of poverty, population growth and rapid urbanization [3, 4].
      A high level of attention has been given to it in the UN (United Nations) millennium declaration of September, 2000 as three of the eight millennium development goals outlined in the declaration have waste or resource efficiency implications [5]. In response to the waste challenge, many developed countries have embarked upon ambitious environmental reforms, recording remarkable advances in best practises and sustainable management of their MSW (municipal solid waste).
      Nigeria typifies many SSA countries with chronic waste management problems. It has a large population of over 140 million people according to census statistics [6]. Population growth rate, rapid urbanization and an unevenly distributed wealth occasioned by huge oil income are factors influencing waste growth in the country [7]. The urban population is growing at an alarming rate. The population growth rate is above global average of 2.9% per annum while the rate of urban growth is as high as 5.5% per annum[8]. This paper is a case study of MSW management in Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria.
      Solid waste management has constituted a serious environmental problem in urban and developing country like Nigeria as improper management of waste has led to degradation of the environment. The major streets in Ibadan are partially and wholly blocked by solid waste. It was revealed that household waste collection and street cleaning are restricted to wealthy neighborhoods, while in the remaining areas, household wastes are dumped along roads, which are in illegal dumps and in storm water drains or is buried[9]. It was also revealed that 35% of Ibadan households lack access to waste collection.
      Insufficient and improper collection of waste leads to environmental health risks. It was revealed that waste dumped into storm drainage channels, lagoons, creeks and other water impoundment points create serious environmental problems, which can escalate into disastrous situations [10]. The 1982 floods in Ibadan, Lagos, Port Harcourt and Aba that led to loss of lives and property was partly a result of blockage of drainage channel by refuse in these cities.
      Waste generation by all living things is inevitable. The rapid population growth coupled with increasing business activity, and high rate of consumption have led to an increase in the quantities of solid waste generated. In developing countries 20%-50% of the recurrent budget is spent on solid waste management, yet 30%-60% of all urban waste is not collected and less than 50% of the population is served.
      Ibadan city lies between latitudes 7°19′ and 7°29′north of the equator and longitudes 3°47′ and 3°58′ east of the Greenwich Meridian (Fig. 1). Ibadan is the capital of Oyo state and is reputed to be the largest city in West Africa, south of Sahara, with a population of 2,580,894 [6]. Bodija market was established in 1987, and is about five minutes drive from the University of Ibadan campus. The market is well planned with the largest collection and distribution centre of foodstuff, timber, meat, goats and cattle in the southwest of Nigeria.
       2. Materials and Methods
       2.1 Materials
      The properties of waste, nature and rate at which the waste is disposed were determined. A survey on waste generation pattern was conducted on each shop in the market. Sampling areas were carefully chosen to ensure that the data obtained is consistent with the objectives of the project. Sampling techniques and equipment were chosen to receive information on the parameter such as sampling point, characteristics of the samples, number of sampling site etc..
      2.2 Sampling Method
      A direct random sampling method was conducted to determine the volume required for storage of domestic waste or to investigate the recycling potential of waste. The study area was divided into three categories based on the materials used in constructing these shops: Category A (open stalls), Category B (covered stalls) and Category C (shops).
      The waste sample was emptied into carton of known cross-sectional area, height and mass. The height of the waste from the top of the carton was measured and recorded and this is used in computing the height as well as the volume of the waste. The waste in the carton was then weighed and recorded. This result is also used in computing the mass as well as the density of the waste.
      Three samples (each of waste generated in a day) were collected from each of the three categories and the average is computed for each of the category. The average from the three categories was then averaged to determine the mass generated per day from the market.
      2.2.1 Density Measurement
      A carton was given out to each randomly selected shop, to use as storage for their daily waste generation. An education program was carried out for the occupants of the shop to give them an awareness of the program and its uses. There was a general inspection and supervision of the selected shops at regular intervals, to ensure that they comply with the instructions given.
      The results of the test carried out to determine the generation rate, density and waste composition of the solid waste are shown in Figs. 2-4. While the results of the average waste generation rate, average density and volume are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.
      3.1 Waste Generation in the Market
      It was revealed from this research that 4.24 million kilograms of solid waste is generated in Bodija market in a year given 2008-estimated population of the market to be 16,000 people. The waste generated per annum will continue to increase with increasing population growth. The type of goods sold in the market determines the type of waste generated in the market. These include nylon, paper, cloth, garbage, wood, glass, metal, vegetable/leaf, dust/ashes and stone. Fig. 5 reveals that dust is ranked highest (30.59%) that is they are the most commonly generated waste in the market because the market is unpaved. Next to this is nylon (21.77%).
      3.2 Sanitary Landfill as a Disposal Technique
      Sanitary landfill is an engineering method of disposing solid wastes on land by spreading them in thin layers, compacting them to the smallest practical volume and covering them with soil each working day in a manner that the environment will be protected.
      Landfill is:
      ? the only method that does not involve other methods for proper disposal;
      ? environmental pollution control measure since burning is eliminated;
      ? suitable for adequate and proper control of rodents and insects;
      ? suitable for biodegradation of greater percentages of the waste.
      3.3 Landfill Design
      Population P = 16,000 people;
      Let population projection for n = 20 years = P20; Growth rate = 2.38% [6]; Pn = P (1 + r)n; P20 = P (1 + r)20;
      P20 = 16,000(1 + 0.0238)20;
      P20 = 25,611 people;
      Average rate of waste generated = 0.453 kg/capita/day;
      Total weight generated = 0.453 × 25,611 × 365= 4.24 × 106 kg/year; Volume required = 4.24 × 106 kg/year;= 8,469.3 m3/year;
      Design volume = 8,469.3 × 1.33 = 11,264.2 m3/year; Allowance for 20% of volume required for cover;
      Volume of landfill = 11,264.2/0.8
      = 14,080.25 m3/year;
      Volume of landfill required in one year = 14,100 m3; Volume of landfill required in 20 years= 14,100 × 20 = 282,000 m3.